Joan Stoykovich Nelson

Oklahoma Conservative Political Action Committee
George W. Bush Presidential Center
Republican National Committee
American Legion Auxiliary
Fox News Contributor
Tulsa Republican Club
Heritage Foundation
John Birch Society
Freedom Alliance

 

CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES: AN UPDATE.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353523

Pflaum T1, Hausler T1, Baumung C1, Ackermann S1, Kuballa T1, Rehm J2,3,4,5,6,7, Lachenmeier DW8,9.

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Abstract

The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

KEYWORDS:

Acetaldehyde; Alcoholic beverages; Cancer risk; Ethanol; Lead; Risk assessment

 

 

THE MARGIN OF EXPOSURE TO FORMALDEHYDE IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353523

Monakhova YB1, Jendral JA, Lachenmeier DW.

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Abstract

Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

 

Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

Lachenmeier DW1, Kanteres F, Rehm J.

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Abstract

AIMS:

In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment.

 

METHODS:

The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor.

 

RESULTS:

The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

Comment in

Acetaldehyde: a cumulative carcinogen in humans. [Addiction. 2009]

PMID: 19335652 DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02516.x

[Indexed for MEDLINE] BMC Cancer. 2010 Jun 8;10:266. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-266.

 

CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT OF ETHYL CARBAMATE IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES FROM BRAZIL WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO THE SPIRITS CACHAÇA AND TIQUIRA.

Lachenmeier DW1, Lima MC, Nóbrega IC, Pereira JA, Kerr-Corrêa F, Kanteres F, Rehm J.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

ETHYL CARBAMATE (EC) is a multi-site carcinogen in experimental animals and probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). Traces of EC below health-relevant ranges naturally occur in several fermented foods and beverages, while higher concentrations above 1 mg/l are regularly detected in only certain spirits derived from cyanogenic plants. In Brazil this concerns the sugarcane spirit cachaça and the manioc (cassava) spirit tiquira, which both regularly exceed the national EC limit of 0.15 mg/l. This study aims to estimate human exposure in Brazil and provide a quantitative risk assessment.

 

METHODS:

The human dietary intake of EC via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data in combination with own surveys and literature data. This data comprises the EC contents of the different beverage groups cachaça, tiquira, other spirits, beer, wine, and unrecorded alcohol (as defined by the WHO; including alcohol which is not captured in routine government statistics nor taxed). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor.

 

RESULTS:

Considering differences between pot-still and column-still cachaça, its average EC content would be 0.38 mg/l. Tiquira contained a considerably higher average EC content of 2.34 mg/l. The whole population exposure from all alcoholic beverages was calculated to be around 100 to 200 ng/kg bw/day, with cachaça and unrecorded alcohol as the major contributing factors. The MOE was calculated to range between 400 and 2,466, with the lifetime cancer risk at approximately 3 cases in 10,000. An even higher risk may exist for binge-drinkers of cachaça and tiquira with MOEs of up to 80 and 15, respectively.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

According to our risk assessment, EC poses a significant cancer risk for the alcohol-drinking population in Brazil, in addition to that of alcohol alone. Model calculations show that the implementation of the 0.15 mg/l limit for cachaça would be beneficial, including an increase of the MOE by a factor between 3 to 6. The implementation of policy measures for tiquira and unrecorded alcohol also appears to be advisable.

 

CARCINOGENICITY OF ACETALDEHYDE IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES: RISK ASSESSMENT OUTSIDE ETHANOL METABOLISM.

Lachenmeier DW1, Kanteres F, Rehm J.

Author information

Abstract

AIMS:

In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment.

 

METHODS:

The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor.

 

RESULTS:

The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

 

Comment in

Acetaldehyde: a cumulative carcinogen in humans. [Addiction. 2009]

PMID: 19335652 DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02516.x

[Indexed for MEDLINE]